Several tests can be used to diagnose GERD:

– The first is a barium esophagram, which is an X-ray used to evaluate the structure and function of the esophagus. This test is usually prompted when an individual has reported difficulty swallowing.
– Another test is an esophageal manometry test that is used to determine LES pressure and the strength and coordination of muscle contraction in the esophagus. Although this test doesn’t show reflux, it allows for the placement of a thin 24-hour pH catheter in the esophagus that demonstrates the reflux’s frequency and direction. This is the best test to diagnose GERD.
– Lastly, an upper endoscopy allows the physician to see if there is esophageal injury and to perform biopsies to determine whether further medical or surgical management is necessary.